An Experimental Infection Model in Sheep and Goats to Evaluate Salmonella Colonization in Deep Tissue Lymph Nodes and after Carcass Vascular Rinsing with Bacteriophages in Goats

An animal infection model was evaluated on sheep and goats to confirm which species infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis C StR (SE13) would provide a consistent and high frequency of Salmonella colonization in lymph nodes (LNs) without causing undue animal morbidity. Sheep and goats (n = 5) were intradermally inoculated with Salmonella, postincubated for 7 days, and euthanized. Superficial cervical, medial iliac, subiliac, mammary, and popliteal LNs were excised from each carcass. Goat LNs had approximately 53% greater Salmonella level compared to sheep. Also, Salmonella was inconsistently recovered from the sheep LNs. Thus, goats were selected to determine the ability of carcass vascular rinsing (with and without bacteriophages) to reduce Salmonella in infected LNs. Goats with similar characteristics were grouped together before being randomly assigned to 3 postharvest treatments; control (CN, not vascularly rinsed; n = 10), vascularly rinsed with a standard Rinse & Chill® solution (RC; 98.5% water and a blend of saccharides and phosphates; n = 10), or vascularly rinsed with a standard Rinse & Chill® solution plus the addition of bacteriophages (BP; n = 10). Rinse & Chill® system was able to successfully deliver a mean 7.0 log PFU/g to the S. Enteritidis-infected LNs (mean 3.5 log CFU/g). However, neither Rinse & Chill® without bacteriophages nor with bacteriophages caused Salmonella reduction (P > 0.05) compared to the nonrinsed goat carcasses.