Meat industry innovations, including Rinse & Chill®, require extensive scientific research in order to satisfy government regulators, but also industry folks and consumers. Rinse & Chill® has been called "the most thoroughly investigated technology to be approved by FSIS," upon obtaining full USDA No Objection status in 2004. Since that time, significant additional R&D has occurred, both for the purposes of better documenting earlier data but also to fill gaps and explore new directions. The research includes areas like microbiology, chemistry, physical characteristics and more. It now covers several species of animals and incorporates some groundbreaking concepts in food safety. Much of this research is ongoing at The University of Wisconsin, USA and The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. The scientific facts today affirm that the technology is safe and efficacious, that it lowers bacteria counts, removes about 40% more blood, optimizes muscle pH, improves carcass chilling by 8-10°F/3-5°C, improves color, tenderness, flavor, shelf life, yield, lipid oxidation, leaves no detectable residues and adds less than ½ of 1% retained water to the carcass, similar to other processes and below regulatory labeling thresholds. In other words, Rinse & Chill® helps our client partners deliver a safer, better quality product.